¿Qué dicen los proyectos para bajar la jornada laboral a seis horas en Argentina?


Dos proyectos de ley, ambos presentados por legisladores nacionales del oficialismo de origen sindical, plantean reducir de 8 a 6 las horas de trabajo obligatorias por día –o en un régimen de 36 semanales-, una idea que fue avalada por la ministra de Trabajo provincial,  Mara Ruiz Malec.

Según datos internacionales, la República Argentina,  con una jornada la jornada laboral de 8 horas diarias o de una carga de 48 horas semanales, tiene una de las cargas más altas de Latinoamérica y del mundo, particularidad que señalan ambos proyectos de ley, que ya esperan tratamiento a nivel de comisión en el Congreso.

Ambos proyectos proponen, con algunas similitudes y diferencias, reducir las horas de trabajo. Uno de ellos es el que presentó la diputada del Frente de Todos y dirigente de la Asociación Bancaria, Claudia Ormaechea, el cual propone una jornada laboral máxima de 6 horas diarias y un tope de 36 semanales.

Para la legisladora deben implementarse modificaciones del régimen de horario debido a la pérdida de poder adquisitivo de los argentinos a pesar de la elevada cantidad de horas de trabajo. “Partimos de la premisa que el derecho del trabajo no crea trabajo, pero el derecho del trabajo con la modulación de la jornada permite su redistribución”, dijo en ese sentido.

Ormaechea propuso “la reducción de jornadas sin reducción de salarios, manteniendo los niveles salariales”. Según argumenta, “los salarios en la Argentina perdieron, en el período 2016/2019 según las mediciones INDEC o el INDEC de la Cámara de Diputados, entre un 26,4 y un 31,4% del poder adquisitivo”.

La dirigente de la Bancaria sostiene además la idea de que el trabajador pueda elegir sobre tres regímenes horarios: 6 horas, 36 semanas ó 4 días semanas.

A su vez, existe un segundo proyecto que es el que presentó el diputado del Frente de Todos y titular de la CTA de los Trabajadores, Hugo Yasky. Para el dirigente “la duración del trabajo no podrá exceder de ocho horas diarias o cuarenta horas semanales para toda persona ocupada por cuenta ajena en explotaciones públicas o privadas, aunque no persigan fines de lucro..

Al respecto, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, director del Centro de Investigación del Bienestar de la Escuela de Negocios de la Universidad de Oxford, afirmó que “todos los estudios sobre una semana laboral de cuatro días que han analizado han mostrado resultados positivos en términos de productividad, entendida como la cantidad de trabajo que se hace en un tiempo definido”. Los resultados los vinculó además con una situación de bienestar de los trabajadores con la reducción horaria.

En diálogo con AM775, la ministra de Trabajo de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, María Ruiz Malec, consideró “factible” la idea de la reducción de la carga horaria debido a que en Argentina “se trabaja muchas horas y, generalmente, eso no redunda en productividad”.

El caso más emblemático de la reducción de la carga horaria es el de Islandia. Allí se optó por trabajar cuatro días a la semana logrando que la productividad se mantuviera e incluso se incrementara, además de registrar mejor rendimiento y bienestar de los trabajadores. La contracara fue España, en donde la idea prosperó con Pedro Sánchez en el Gobierno, aunque luego no prosperó.

En tanto, en Nueva Zelanda la medida se implementó a modo de prueba en algunas empresas y poco a poco parece extenderse en toda la industria. “Todos los negocios con los que hablamos reportan un aumento de la productividad”, señalaron expertos a BBC Mundo. La modalidad de horario reducido también se implementó con éxito en algunas empresas de los Estados Unidos y de Japón. No obstante, en los tres países la propuesta dista de consolidarse masivamente al nivel de Islandia. (DIB)

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